色哥哥就去吻就去色某大型会计师事务所员工出差被警方逮捕 起因大保健?

Ruby Enterprise Edition (REE) is a server-oriented distribution of the official Ruby interpreter, and includes various additional enhancements:

  • 發布時間︰

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    A copy-on-write friendly garbage collector. Phusion Passenger uses this, in combination with a technique called preforking, to reduce Ruby on Rails applications' memory usage by 33% on average.

  • An improved memory allocator called tcmalloc, which improves performance quite a bit.

  • The ability to tweak garbage collector settings for maximum server performance.

  • The ability to inspect the garbage collector’s state and the object heap state, for debugging purposes.

  • The ability to obtain backtraces for all running threads, making it easier for one to debug multithreaded applications.

  • Thread scheduler bug fixes and performance improvements. Threading on Ruby Enterprise Edition can be more than 10 times faster than official Ruby 1.8.

  • Various memory management tweaks so that the Ruby interpreter uses less memory on average, even when copy-on-write is not utilized.

Some of these features are gathered from third party Ruby patches: RailsBench, Sylvain Joyeux’s object allocation patch, caller_for_all_threads, Darryl Gove’s and Miriam Blatt’s Sparc optimization patches, Brent Roman’s MBARI patch set.

2. Installation and uninstallation

2.1. Installation via Debian package or source tarball

To install REE, download either the source tarball or the Debian package from the REE website. The source tarball contains a cross-platform installer. Installation instructions are available on the download page.

Note that this installer is written in Ruby, and thus requires a Ruby interpreter to run. Because not all systems come with a Ruby interpreter by default, the source tarball also contains a number of precompiled Ruby interpreters for various platforms, with the purpose of running the installer. The installer script will automatically use a precompiled Ruby binary for the current platform, if available. Precompiled Ruby interpreters for the following platforms are included:

  • x86 Linux

  • x86_64 Linux

  • x86 FreeBSD 6

  • Solaris

MacOS X and most FreeBSD systems already come with a Ruby interpreter by default.

So if you notice that the installer fails to start, please install Ruby first, then re-run the installer.

Warning It is not recommended to install REE into /usr because it can overwrite your existing Ruby installation in a way that the system doesn’t expect. You should install REE into an isolated place such as /opt.

2.1.1. Installation options

Disabling tcmalloc

If you experience problems with the tcmalloc memory allocator, then you can install REE without tcmalloc by passing --no-tcmalloc to the installer.

Non-interactive installation

You can install REE non-interactively either by using the Debian package, or by passing --auto=DIRECTORY to the REE installer. The latter will instruct the installer to non-interactively install REE into the specified target directory.

More options

You can read about all of the available installation options by passing --help to the REE installer.

2.2. Manual installation (for experts)

If you wish to install REE from source, but do not wish to use the included installer, or if the installer doesn’t work, then you can install REE manually. Please follow the instructions below.

Note that these instructions do not cover installing RubyGems.

2.2.1. Prerequisites

You need to have the following dependencies installed:

  1. A C and C++ compiler, preferrably gcc.

  2. The make tool.

  3. The patch tool.

  4. C development headers for zlib.

  5. C development headers for OpenSSL.

  6. C development headers for GNU Readline.

  7. yacc or bison.

2.2.2. Step 1: Download and extract the source tarball

Type:

tar xzvf ruby-enterprise-x.x.x.tar.gz

A directory called ruby-enterprise-x.x.x will now appear.

2.2.3. Step 2: Decide the prefix you want to install REE to

Please decide on a prefix to install REE to, and put this directory name into the PREFIX environment variable. We’ll need this value later in these instructions.

For example, if you want to install REE into /opt/ruby-enterprise, then run:

PREFIX=/opt/ruby-enterprise

Please note that the rest of this document assumes that REE is installed into /opt/ruby-enterprise. If you installed REE into a different directory then just replace /opt/ruby-enterprise with whatever the real prefix is.

2.2.4. Step 3: Install tcmalloc

Tcmalloc is a memory allocator which is usually more efficient than the platform’s native memory allocator. REE doesn’t require tcmalloc, but it will work better if tcmalloc is installed.

Compile tcmalloc as follows:

cd ruby-enterprise-x.x.x/source/distro/google-perftools-*
./configure --prefix=$PREFIX --disable-dependency-tracking
make libtcmalloc_minimal.la

If compilation fails, then skip to step 5. REE will work fine without tcmalloc.

After compilation, install tcmalloc as follows:

sudo mkdir -p $PREFIX/lib
sudo rm -f $PREFIX/lib/libtcmalloc_minimal*.so*
sudo cp -Rpf .libs/libtcmalloc_minimal*.so* $PREFIX/lib/
Note
MacOS X note
Instead of typing libtcmalloc_minimal*.so*, type libtcmalloc_minimal*.bundle*.
Note The reason why we don’t instruct you to type make and make install is because compiling tcmalloc with make usually doesn’t work on 64-bit platforms. The above instructions are a little bit more complex, but they work on all platforms where tcmalloc is supported.

2.2.5. Step 4: Configure REE

Change the current working directory to ruby-enterprise-x.x.x/source. If you were previously in the google-perftools directory, then type:

cd ../..

Run the configure script:

./configure --prefix=$PREFIX --enable-mbari-api CFLAGS='-g -O2'

2.2.6. Step 5: Compiling and installing the system_allocator library (MacOS X only)

If you are on MacOS X, then compile and install the system_allocator library:

gcc -dynamiclib system_allocator.c -install_name @rpath/libsystem_allocator.dylib -o libsystem_allocator.dylib
sudo install libsystem_allocator.dylib $PREFIX/lib/

2.2.7. Step 6: compiling and installing REE

Open Makefile. Search for a line which starts with:

LIBS =

Append the string $(PRELIBS) to the part after the = sign. For example, on Ubuntu 8.04, the 'LIBS = ' line becomes:

LIBS = $(PRELIBS) -ldl -lcrypt -lm  $(EXTLIBS)

Save the file. Now we can proceed with compiling REE:

make PRELIBS="-Wl,-rpath,$PREFIX/lib -L$PREFIX/lib -ltcmalloc_minimal"

Notes:

  • If you did not install tcmalloc, then you can omit the -ltcmalloc_minimal part.

  • If you are on MacOS X, then you need to append -lsystem_allocator to the PRELIBS option.

  • If you are on FreeBSD, then you need to append -lpthread to the PRELIBS option.

Now that REE has been compiled, install it with:

sudo make install

2.3. RubyCocoa compatibility and --enable-shared

In order to use RubyCocoa, the Ruby interpreter must be compiled with --enable-shared. By default, Ruby Enterprise Edition’s interpreter is not compiled with --enable-shared. You can compile the Ruby Enterprise Edition interpreter with this flag by passing -c --enable-shared to its installer, like this:

./ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/installer -c --enable-shared

Please note that enabling --enable-shared will make the Ruby interpreter about 20% slower. It is for this reason that we don’t recommend enabling --enable-shared on server environments, although it’s fine for desktop environments.

2.4. Tcl/Tk compatibility and --enable-pthread

In order to use Tcl/Tk with threading support, the Ruby interpreter must be compiled with --enable-pthread. By default, Ruby Enterprise Edition’s interpreter is not compiled with --enable-pthread. You can compile the Ruby Enterprise Edition interpreter with this flag by passing -c --enable-pthread to its installer, like this:

./ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/installer -c --enable-pthread

Please note that enabling --enable-pthread will make the Ruby interpreter about 50% slower. It is for this reason that we don’t recommend enabling --enable-shared on server environments, although it’s fine for desktop environments.

2.5. How REE installs itself into the system

By default, REE installs itself into a directory in /opt. If you already had a Ruby interpreter installed (typically in /usr; let’s call this the system Ruby interpreter), then REE will have no effect on it: REE lives in isolation and in parallel to the system Ruby interpreter. This also means that:

  • If you have any software which depends on the system Ruby interpreter, then that software will not break. It will continue to work like before.

  • REE has its own set of Ruby libraries, and its own set of gems and its own set of commands. If you install a new gem using the system Ruby interpreter, then that gem will not show up in REE’s gem list, and vice versa.

  • When running Ruby programs, the system Ruby interpreter will be used unless you explicitly configure the system to use REE by default.

2.5.1. Why doesn’t REE use the system Ruby interpreter’s gems?

REE does not use the system Ruby interpreter’s gems because it can cause problems with native extensions, e.g. RMagick, Mongrel, Hpricot, etc. A native extension compiled for one Ruby installation might crash when used in a different Ruby installation. This is why you must reinstall your gems in REE.

2.6. Upgrading

To upgrade REE through the Debian package, just install the Debian package.

To upgrade REE through the source tarball, run the installer in the source tarball and specify the same destination prefix directory that REE is currently installed in. For example, if REE is currently installed in /opt/ruby-enterprise-20081215, then specify /opt/ruby-enterprise-20081215 in the upgrade source tarball’s installer.

2.7. Uninstallation

If you installed REE through a Debian package, then uninstall the Debian package with dpkg or with apt-get.

If you installed REE through the source tarball, then you can uninstall it by deleting the directory in which REE is installed. For example, if REE was installed to /opt/ruby-enterprise-X.X.X (the default), then just delete that directory. It is for this reason why we recommend installing REE into its own directory.

3. Using Ruby Enterprise Edition

3.1. General usage

Normally one would run a Ruby program by invoking the Ruby interpreter with a source file as its first argument:

$ ruby some_program.rb

To run the same program in REE, invoke the equivalent command in REE’s bin folder:

$ /opt/ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/bin/ruby some_program.rb

The same applies to other Ruby commands such as gem, irb and rake. For example, if you want to install Ruby on Rails for REE, invoke:

$ /opt/ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/bin/gem install rails

3.2. Using REE with Phusion Passenger

To use REE in combination with Phusion Passenger, you must run the Passenger Apache 2 module installer that’s associated with REE. The REE installer installs the Passenger gem by default, so you just have to run the Passenger Apache 2 module installer:

/opt/ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/bin/passenger-install-apache2-module

Then follow the instructions that the installer gives you.

3.3. Configuring REE as the default Ruby interpreter

It is possible to configure REE as the default Ruby interpreter, so that when you type ruby, gem, irb, rake or other Ruby commands, REE’s version is invoked instead of the system Ruby’s version.

To do this, you must add REE’s bin directory to the beginning of the PATH environment variable. This environment variable specifies the command shell’s command search path. For example, you can do this on the command-line:

$ ruby some_program.rb    # <--- some_program.rb is being run
                          #      in the system Ruby interpreter.

$ export PATH=/opt/ruby-enterprise-X.X.X/bin:$PATH
$ ruby some_program.rb    # <--- some_program.rb will now be run in REE!

Invoking export PATH=... on the command-line has no permanent effect: its effects disappear as soon as you exit the shell. To make the effect permanent, add an entry to the file /etc/environment instead. On Ubuntu Linux, /etc/environment looks like this:

PATH="/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games"
LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
LANGUAGE="en_US:en"

Add REE’s bin directory to the PATH environment variable, like this:

PATH="/opt/ruby-enterprise-x.x.x/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games"
LANG="en_US.UTF-8"
LANGUAGE="en_US:en"

4. Garbage collector and object space

4.1. Copy-on-write friendliness

By default, REE’s garbage collector is not copy-on-write-friendly, just like a stock Ruby interpreter. Copy-on-write-friendliness can be turned on during runtime by calling:

GC.copy_on_write_friendly = true

Note that Phusion Passenger automatically turns on the copy-on-write-friendly mode whenever it detects that it’s running in REE.

With the following method, one can check whether the garbage collector is in copy-on-write-friendly mode:

GC.copy_on_write_friendly?

4.2. Garbage collector performance tuning

Ruby’s garbage collector tries to adapt memory usage to the amount of memory used by the program by dynamically growing or shrinking the allocated heap as it sees fit. For long running server applications, this approach isn’t always the most efficient one. The performance very much depends on the ratio heap_size / program_size. It behaves somewhat erratic: adding code can actually make your program run faster.

With REE, one can tune the garbage collector’s behavior for better server performance. It is possible to specify the initial heap size to start with. The heap size will never drop below the initial size. By carefully selecting the initial heap size one can decrease startup time and increase throughput of server applications.

Garbage collector behavior is controlled through the following environment variables. These environment variables must be set prior to invoking the Ruby interpreter.

RUBY_HEAP_MIN_SLOTS

This specifies the initial number of heap slots. The default is 10000.

RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_INCREMENT

The number of additional heap slots to allocate when Ruby needs to allocate new heap slots for the first time. The default is 10000.

For example, suppose that the default GC settings are in effect, and 10000 Ruby objects exist on the heap (= 10000 used heap slots). When the program creates another object, Ruby will allocate a new heap with 10000 heap slots in it. There are now 20000 heap slots in total, of which 10001 are used and 9999 are unused.

RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_GROWTH_FACTOR

Multiplicator used for calculating the number of new heaps slots to allocate next time Ruby needs new heap slots. The default is 1.8.

Take the program in the last example. Suppose that the program creates 10000 more objects. Upon creating the 10000th object, Ruby needs to allocate another heap. This heap will have 10000 * 1.8 = 18000 heap slots. There are now 20000 + 18000 = 38000 heap slots in total, of which 20001 are used and 17999 are unused.

The next time Ruby needs to allocate a new heap, that heap will have 18000 * 1.8 = 32400 heap slots.

RUBY_GC_MALLOC_LIMIT

The amount of C data structures which can be allocated without triggering a garbage collection. If this is set too low, then the garbage collector will be started even if there are empty heap slots available. The default value is 8000000.

RUBY_HEAP_FREE_MIN

The number of heap slots that should be available after a garbage collector run. If fewer heap slots are available, then Ruby will allocate a new heap according to the RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_INCREMENT and RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_GROWTH_FACTOR parameters. The default value is 4096.

The best settings varies from application to application. You should try experimenting with the values.

37signals uses the following settings in production:

RUBY_HEAP_MIN_SLOTS=600000
RUBY_GC_MALLOC_LIMIT=59000000
RUBY_HEAP_FREE_MIN=100000

Twitter uses the following settings in production:

RUBY_HEAP_MIN_SLOTS=500000
RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_INCREMENT=250000
RUBY_HEAP_SLOTS_GROWTH_FACTOR=1
RUBY_GC_MALLOC_LIMIT=50000000

Twitter’s settings mean:

  • Start with enough memory to hold the application (Ruby’s default is very low, lower than what a Rails application typically needs).

  • Increase it linearly if you need more (Ruby’s default is exponential increase).

  • Only garbage-collect every 50 million malloc calls (Ruby’s default is 6x smaller).

Twitter claims that these settings give them about 20% to 40% average performance improvement, at the cost of slightly higher peak memory usage.

4.3. Garbage collector statistics

One can inspect various garbage collector statistics by calling certain methods. Statistics collection is disabled by default, so before one can obtain the statistics, statistics collection must be enabled by calling:

GC.enable_stats

There’s a very minor performance penalty when statistics collection is enabled. Statistics collection can be disabled by calling:

GC.disable_stats

The following methods are available for obtaining the collected statistics information:

GC.collections

Returns the number of garbage collections that have been performed since GC statistics collection was enabled.

GC.enable_stats
do_something
GC.collections     # => 20
GC.time

Returns the total amount of time that has been spent on garbage collection since GC statistics collection was enabled, in microseconds.

GC.enable_stats
do_something
GC.time            # => 3000000
GC.growth

Returns the number of bytes that have been allocated since the last garbage collection run.

GC.dump

Dumps information about the current GC data structures to the GC log file, to stderr if no GC log file is specified. One can specify the GC log file in the RUBY_GC_DATA_FILE environment variable, which must be set before starting the Ruby interpreter.

At this moment, the only thing that this method does is printing the size of each Ruby heap.

The collected statistics information can be cleared by calling:

GC.clear_stats

4.4. Memory allocation and object heap statistics

One can obtain various statistics about object allocation. Some of the statistics methods listed here require one to explicitly enable statistics collection, just like the garbage collection statistics methods.

The following methods are available:

GC.allocated_size

Returns the amount of memory (in bytes) that has been allocated since GC statistics collection was enabled. This is the total amount of bytes that has been passed to the C function ruby_xmalloc() so far.

GC.allocated_size    #=> 4070
GC.num_allocations

Returns the number of memory allocation requests that have been performed since GC statistics collection was enabled. This is the number of times that the C function ruby_xmalloc() has been called.

GC.num_allocations   #=> 4070
ObjectSpace.live_objects

Returns the number of objects that are currently allocated in the system. This value usually goes down after the garbage collector runs. This method does not require one to enable statistics collection.

ObjectSpace.live_objects   #=> 30873
ObjectSpace.allocated_objects

Returns the number of objects that have been allocated since the Ruby interpreter started. This number can only increase. To know how many objects are currently allocated, use ObjectSpace.live_objects instead.

ObjectSpace.allocated_objects   #=> 33266

5. Obtaining the backtrace of all threads

The method caller_for_all_threads returns a Hash which maps each currently running thread to the thread’s backtrace. A backtrace is an array of strings, in the same format as the return value of the method caller. For example, consider the following program test.rb:

require 'thread'
require 'pp'

def foo
   bar
end

def bar
   sleep 10
end

thread1 = Thread.new do
   foo
end

thread2 = Thread.new do
   STDIN.readline
end

# Give other threads some chance to run.
sleep 0.1

pp caller_for_all_threads

This program will print:

{#<Thread:0x8261954 sleep>=>
  ["test.rb:9:in `bar'",
   "test.rb:5:in `foo'",
   "test.rb:13",
   "test.rb:12:in `initialize'",
   "test.rb:12:in `new'",
   "test.rb:12"],
 #<Thread:0x81986a8 run>=>["test.rb:23"],
 #<Thread:0x82618c8 sleep>=>
  ["test.rb:17",
   "test.rb:16:in `initialize'",
   "test.rb:16:in `new'",
   "test.rb:16"]}

5.1. Phusion Passenger integration

caller_for_all_threads support is integrated into Phusion Passenger version 2.1 (which at the time of writing hasn’t been released yet). Upon sending a SIGQUIT signal to a Phusion Passenger backend process, it will print the backtrace of all threads to the Apache error log. This feature is also documented in the Phusion Passenger users guide.

6. Obtaining the source filename and line of arbitrary methods and blocks

All Method and Proc objects provide the __file__ and __line__ methods for obtaining the source filename and line on which said method or proc was defined. This is extremely useful for debugging applications or frameworks that rely on heavily on meta-programming.

For example, consider a Ruby on Rails application which has a User model. The users database table has a username field, so ActiveRecord automatically generates a username method for the User class. By calling __file__ and __line__ one can see where in the ActiveRecord source code the method is defined:

>> method = User.new.method(:username)
=> #<Method: User#username>
>> method.__file__
=> "/opt/ruby-enterprise/lib/ruby/gems/1.8/gems/activerecord-2.3.2/lib/active_record/attribute_methods.rb"
>> method.__line__
=> 211

A simpler example that doesn’t involve Ruby on Rails:

# foo.rb

class Foo
   def foo
   end
end

foo = Foo.new

method = foo.method(:foo)
method.__file__    # => foo.rb
method.__line__    # => 4